^{2}at the surface of the sphere. Since this is the only source of heat, at equilibrium, the only very slightly larger shell around the sphere must radiate energy into space at a power of 235 W/m

^{2}. So far he is right.

^{2}, then it must be doing so also from the inner surface which has the same temperature, because the relationship between the power of radiation and the temperature is given by P = σT

^{4}, where P is the power per unit area, T is the temperature of the surface in Kelvin, and σ is a constant. This relationship is the Stefan-Boltzmann law. If the inner surface were radiating into a vacuum at T = 0K, this would be a correct application of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This is not the case for the inner surface, though we will imagine that it is for the outer surface since space has an average temperature relatively close to absolute zero compared to an Earth surface temperature near 288 K.

^{2}and the sphere surface already had a supply of power of 235 W/m

^{2}, the sum of the two powers is now 470 W/m

^{2}. Putting a shell around the core sphere has doubled the radiating power of the core sphere. This is the real greenhouse effect he says. His solution is based on a flux of photons at 470 W/m

^{2}flowing outward from the sphere surface and a flux of photons at 235 W/m

^{2}flowing downward from the shell to the sphere surface.

^{2}radiating out from the inner sphere surface minus the 235 W/m

^{2}radiating into the inner sphere surface from the inner surface of the shell is still 235 W/m

^{2}which is supplied by the internal power supply of the core sphere. QED, energy is conserved. Never mind the fact that the energy of the photons issuing forth at the rate of 470 W/m

^{2}and the energy of the photons from the inside wall of the shell at 235 W/m

^{2}must add, not subtract, when we examine the energy density of the volume between the outer shell and the inner core sphere. I will discuss this somewhat further on in this post, but the reference I gave above will be a much more thorough discussion of this critical issue.

^{4}, where a is Stefan’s constant. Within the cavity in equilibrium, there are just as many photons traveling in one direction as in its opposite direction. If photons traveling in opposite directions had energies that cancelled one another out, then the energy density inside a black body cavity would be zero and would not be given by Stefan’s Law.

**, you will also find that two oppositely directed electromagnetic plane waves will simply pass through one another and reappear as normal plane waves after their very brief interaction. They most certainly do not sum up to zero energy.**

*Classical Electrodynamics*_{S}, when the power to the sphere is first turned on. We will assume that the surrounding shell on the right of the drawing was at T=0 K when the power to the inner core was turned on. Let us either assume that it has a finite heat capacity so that it has to warm up to its equilibrium temperature or we count on the finite speed of light to create a delay. We are making this assumption so that we are not too quick to leap to false assumptions. What is the general case before and when equilibrium is reached? It is obvious that T

_{O}will increase. What will happen to T

_{S}?

_{S}. The power radiated from the outer surface of the shell section will be P

_{O}and that surface is in vacuum facing nothing but T = 0 K space. For simplicity and in order to be strictly correct in applying the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, the space between the powered inner core and the spherical shell is in vacuum. We have

_{S}= σ T

_{S}

^{4}- σ T

_{O}

^{4}

_{O}= σ T

_{O}

^{4}

_{S}= P

_{O}, so

_{SE}

^{4}- T

_{OE}

^{4}= T

_{OE}

^{4}, where the added E in the subscripts designates the equilibrium values.

_{SE}

^{4}= 2 T

_{OE}

^{4}or T

_{SE}= 1.189 T

_{OE }and

_{S}= σ ( 2 T

_{OE}

^{4}- T

_{OE}

^{4}) = σ T

_{OE}

^{4}.

_{S}always, so when the shell was still at T=0 K, Q = P

_{S}= σ T

_{SI}

^{4}, where T

_{SI}was the initial temperature of the surface of the sphere when Q was first turned on and all the sphere surface saw as a T=0 K environment. Consequently,

_{OE}= T

_{SI}

_{SE}= 1.189 T

_{OE}= 1.189 T

_{SI}

_{SI}temperature. They create a black body cavity between them and the photon emission from the two facing inner surfaces is P = 0. There is only P = σ T

^{4}emission from the outward facing surfaces of each plane and the interior energy density is given by Stefan’s Law as

^{4}

^{2}and the shell radiated 235 W/m

^{2}down upon the inner sphere, so he says the inner sphere surface radiates power away from its surface equal to the sum of the internal power and the radiated power from the surrounding shell, which is 470 W/m

^{2}. Applying the Stefan - Boltzmann Law:

_{S}= 470 W/m

^{2}= σ T

_{SE}

^{4}

_{SE}= 301.74 K

_{S}= σ T

_{SI}

^{4}= 235 W/m

^{2}

_{SI}= 253.73 K

_{SE}= 1.189 T

_{SI}= 301.68 K

^{2}= 705 W/m

^{2}, while my photon density corresponds only to those emitted from the inner core surface and there are no photons emitted from the inner surface of the surrounding shell. The reasons for this are given at length in my first reference above. Consequently, the real photon density between the sphere and the shell is actually that corresponding to 235 W/m

^{2}. Eschenbach has multiplied the photon density by a factor of 3.

^{2}. Divide that radiative forcing value by 12.8 to account for the greatly exaggerated effect caused by an exaggeration of the number of photons that carbon dioxide can absorb and one gets a radiative forcing value of only 0.29 W/m

^{2}. This alone would make it much harder to experimentally document the warming effect of carbon dioxide and would explain why the global climate models have been exaggerating the effects of carbon dioxide so long and why it has been so hard for them to find that elusive hot spot in the upper troposphere in the tropics they predicted.

- The absorption of solar insolation in the atmosphere before it can reach the surface to warm the surface
- Carbon dioxide has a higher heat capacity than do nitrogen and oxygen molecules, so more carbon dioxide increases the heat energy carried upward by convection currents
- Because carbon dioxide radiates thermal energy from a warmer layer of air to a cooler layer of air above it and that energy is transported at the speed of light, albeit for a short distance in the troposphere, this is faster transport of energy than is the convection current that would otherwise transport this energy upward

^{2}, the sum of the decrease on the net warming forcing effect may be quite significant. What is more, these cooling effects probably do not saturate as quickly as the greenhouse warming effect does as one increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from current levels. Consequently, the small warming effect of 400 ppm of carbon dioxide may be reduced by further additions of carbon dioxide, if not now, then maybe as one adds more to 600 ppm of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. At this point, we do not know what happens as CO

_{2}is added in increments at higher concentrations than 400 ppm.

- Solar irradiance variations
- Solar wind and the weakening solar magnetic field effects
- Cosmic ray seeding of clouds
- Other causes of cloud variations
- The condensation of water in dew and ground fog surface warming
- Precipitation effects on warming/cooling
- Evaporation of water as a function of temperature and humidity around the world
- Better understanding of the greenhouse effect of water vapor
- Ocean currents and cycles
- Effects caused by the weakening of the Earth's magnetic field
- Effects of aerosols
- Effects of dust
- Other effects not listed